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The decision to place a loved one in a nursing home is never an easy one. It can often be a last resort for families who have exhausted all other options of care for their aging relative. However, when the family decides to place their loved one in a nursing home, they trust the nursing home to provide adequate care and ensure the well-being of their loved one.
When nursing homes accept residents and receive payment for their care, they take on a significant responsibility. They have a duty to provide quality care, which includes adequate food, hydration, and medication, as well as ensuring safety and protecting residents from abuse or neglect.
Unfortunately, the reality is that many nursing homes fail to meet these basic standards of care, and neglect and abuse are quite common. This can lead to severe injuries like pressure sores, fractures, head injuries, and internal bleeding from falls when left unsupervised. Choking incidents and dislodged trachs due to lack of proper care and staff training can also lead to devastating outcomes, and emotional abuse can cause significant emotional and psychological harm.
The decision to entrust a loved one into the care of a nursing home can be one of the most difficult choices with which a family is ever confronted. When entering into this sacred trust with a nursing home, you expect that your loved one will be properly cared for with dignity and respect. Unfortunately, negligence and outright abuse in nursing homes is far too common. Although many state and federal regulations, such as the New York State Public Health Law, have been established to protect nursing home residents, gross violations occur every single day tragically compromising the health, well-being, and dignity of some of our society's most vulnerable members.
While state and federal regulations, such as the New York State Public Health Law, exist to protect nursing home residents, the harsh reality is that gross violations occur frequently, putting nursing home residents in harm's way. The duty of care is a fundamental principle that mandates nursing homes to provide high-quality care to residents, which includes proper nutrition, hydration, medication management, and ensuring safety and dignity. Failure to uphold this duty of care can lead to a range of injuries, including falls, pressure ulcers, malnutrition, dehydration, and emotional abuse. Despite these regulations, there are cases where nursing homes have disregarded the safety and well-being of their residents, leading to severe injuries and, in some cases, death. We at Leitner Varughese Warywoda Law Firm believe that it is our responsibility to fight for the rights of these vulnerable residents and seek accountability from nursing homes that fail to fulfill their duty of care.
Brett Leitner and Justin Varughese are among New York’s most recognized and respected leaders in the area of nursing home abuse & negligence litigation. Both in and out of the courtroom, our attorneys work tirelessly to create an environment where negligence and abuse will not be tolerated. Having recovered millions of dollars in nursing home verdicts and settlements for injured residents and their families, Leitner Varughese Warywoda will provide a voice for your loved one that cannot be ignored.
COMMON SIGNS OF NURSING HOME NEGLIGENCE
Nursing home negligence can manifest in a variety of ways, resulting in physical, emotional, and psychological harm to residents. It is essential to be aware of the common signs of nursing home negligence, so families can identify potential neglect or abuse and address it promptly.
One of the most common signs of nursing home neglect is the development of Bed Sores or Pressure Sores. This occurs when a resident remains in the same position for an extended period of time, causing wounds that can lead to infections.
Clogged or misplaced breathing tubes can cause severe health consequences, potentially leading to respiratory failure and even death. This risk is particularly high in nursing home residents who require assisted breathing. Breathing tubes must be regularly checked by trained medical staff, and any signs of clogging or malposition should be addressed rapidly. In some cases, the negligence of nursing homes and their staff may result in wandering residents getting into trouble with their breathing tubes, which can cause significant harm. If clogging in the breathing tubes goes undiscovered, it can lead to choking, aspiration pneumonia, and possibly death. If a loved one has experienced clogging or misplaced breathing tubes while in the care of a nursing home, it is critical to seek the assistance of experienced legal counsel to hold those responsible for the negligence accountable.
Nursing home residents are vulnerable to fall accidents due to their age and health conditions. It is the responsibility of nursing homes and their staff to supervise residents adequately and prevent fall accidents from occurring. Falls that occur when left unsupervised can lead to severe injuries, particularly in older adults. These injuries can include fractures, commonly in the hip, wrist, or arm, which can lead to long-term hospitalization and rehabilitation.
Additionally, fall accidents can also cause subdural hematomas if the resident's head hits the ground during a fall. Subdural hematomas are a type of brain injury that often occurs without an apparent injury, and symptoms may not present themselves until several days or even weeks afterward. The delay in diagnosis can lead to significant long-term health consequences or even death.
If your loved one has experienced a fall accident resulting in a fracture or subdural hematoma as a result of nursing home negligence, it is essential to seek legal representation from an experienced nursing home neglect and abuse attorney. Holding nursing homes accountable for their failure to provide adequate care and supervision is crucial to ensuring the safety and well-being of residents and preventing such negligence from happening in the future.
Infection or sepsis can be a sign of neglect, as it can arise from a lack of vigilance to hygiene and cleanliness standards.
Injuries of unknown origin refer to injuries sustained by nursing home residents that do not have a clear and documented explanation. These injuries can be an indication of nursing home neglect or abuse, and it is the nursing home's responsibility to investigate thoroughly and report such incidences promptly.
Nursing homes must take measures to prevent injuries of unknown origin and actively monitor the physical well-being of residents. Such injuries can include bruises, welts, lacerations, or any other type of wound that is not explainable due to the resident's medical treatment.
If such injuries occur, it is crucial that the nursing home take immediate action to investigate the incident. Furthermore, nursing homes have a legal obligation to report such incidents to relevant state agencies. This reporting is essential to protecting residents from potential harm in the future and ensuring that affected individuals receive proper treatment and care.
Families with a loved one in a nursing home should be aware of the potential for injuries of unknown origin, as they can be an indication of neglect or abuse. It is essential to work closely with the nursing home to monitor the condition of the residents and to report such incidents promptly.
If you suspect that your loved one has been a victim of nursing home negligence or abuse, do not hesitate to seek legal help from experienced nursing home neglect and abuse attorneys. We can help you understand your legal rights and options and work towards ensuring the safety and well-being of your loved ones.
Malnutrition or Dehydration can occur in nursing homes when residents do not receive adequate nutrition and hydration, compromising their physical stability and health. Medication errors can also contribute to significant health issues, as can incidents of choking and blocked breathing tubes, which often arise from negligence or lack of staff training.
Sexual abuse is a disturbing and tragic form of nursing home neglect and abuse, particularly when it involves incapacitated nursing home residents. Incapacitated residents, such as those with Alzheimer's or dementia, may be unable to report incidences of sexual abuse, further exacerbating the trauma they experience.
Sexual abuse in nursing homes can occur in many forms, including unwanted touching, forced nudity, and sexual assaults. In some cases, nursing home staff members may even attempt to justify their actions as "consensual" between residents and staff, which is a gross violation of professional conduct.
Nursing homes must take all possible measures to protect their residents from such abuses. This responsibility includes adequate staff training, careful screening of employees, and implementing strict protocols for reporting these incidents when they occur. Failure to do so can result in significant legal consequences.
Family members who suspect that their loved one was a victim of sexual abuse in a nursing home should take immediate action. Our nursing home neglect and abuse attorneys will work tirelessly to ensure justice for your loved one and hold the responsible parties accountable. No resident should ever have to endure sexual abuse while under the care of a nursing home, and we will do everything possible to help victims of these traumatic incidents.
Assaults by staff can lead to a degree of physical and emotional distress that is challenging to allocate resources to address. Identifying these common signs of nursing home negligence is critical to protecting the well-being of residents in nursing homes and holding the responsible parties accountable for their actions. Families, in conjunction with experienced legal help, must take every step possible to stop nursing home negligence and abuse.
WHAT CAN FAMILY MEMBERS DO TO ENSURE ADEQUATE CARE?
Family members play an essential role in ensuring their loved ones in nursing homes are receiving adequate care. Below are some actionable steps that family members can take:
Visit regularly: Visiting your loved one regularly can help you monitor their condition and ensure they are receiving quality care.
Talk with staff members: Establishing a good relationship with staff members is crucial in understanding how your loved one is being cared for. You can ask questions about their daily routine and check on their medication and nutritional needs.
Look for signs of neglect or abuse: Regularly monitor your loved one for any signs of neglect or abuse such as physical injuries, sudden changes in behavior, or unexpected weight loss.
Research the facility: Conduct research on the facility's reputation, history, and the qualifications of its staff members. Checking online reviews or speaking with other residents and their families can help you gain valuable insights.
Be an advocate: Be proactive and speak up on behalf of your loved one if their needs are not being met. Voice your concerns to the nursing home staff and if needed, seek legal help from an experienced nursing home neglect and abuse attorney.
By staying vigilant and taking a proactive approach, family members can help ensure their loved ones are receiving care to the highest standard. These actions also help identify any potential issues promptly, preventing them from escalating into more significant problems.
WHAT RIGHTS DOES A NURSING HOME RESIDENT HAVE IN NEW YORK?
According to the New York State Department of Health, nursing home residents have the right to:
dignity, respect and a comfortable living environment
quality of care and treatment without discrimination
freedom of choice to make your own, independent decisions
be informed in writing about services and fees before you enter the nursing home
the safeguard of your property and money
appeal a transfer or discharge with the New York State Department of Health
privacy in communications and the treatment and care of personal needs/belongings
choose your own schedule, activities and other preferences that are important to you
receive visitors of your choosing at the time of your choosing
an easy-to-use and responsive complaint procedure
be free from abuse including verbal, sexual, mental and physical abuse
be free from restraints
exercise all of your rights without fear of reprisal
participate in the established resident council at the facility
access and inspect records pertaining to your care
WHAT ARE MY RIGHTS TO REQUEST NURSING HOME RECORDS?
Rules and regulations exist governing a New York State nursing home's duties and obligations with regard to producing copies of a nursing home resident's medical and nursing records.
Section 18(2) of the New York Public Health Law (PHL) states that, upon written request, a health care provider shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for a patient to inspect the patient’s information concerning or relating to the examination or treatment of the patient.
Section 18(1)(b) defines “Health care provider” or “provider” as a “health care facility” or a “health care practitioner” as defined by this subdivision.
Section 18(1) (c) defines “Health care facility” or “facility” as a “hospital as defined in article twenty-eight of this chapter”
Section 2801 defines “Hospital” as “a facility or institution engaged principally in providing services by or under the supervision of a physician or, in the case of a dental clinic or dental dispensary, of a dentist, or, in the case of a midwifery birth center, of a midwife, for the prevention, diagnosis or treatment of human disease, pain, injury, deformity or physical condition, including, but not limited to, a general hospital, public health center, diagnostic center, treatment center, dental clinic, dental dispensary, rehabilitation center other than a facility used solely for vocational rehabilitation, nursing home … .”
In addition to Section 18(2) of the New York Public Health Law (PHL), 10 NYCRR 415.3(c)(iv) mandates that the facility provide the requesting party with the right “to inspect all records including clinical records, pertaining to himself or herself within 24 hours after oral or written request to the facility” and, in addition, to purchase copies with 48 hours of the request.
Moreover, 42 CFR 483.10(g) additionally requires that the facility must provide the records within 24 hours of the request.
Finally, the Rules and Regulations of the Board of Regents concerning professional conduct clearly require your compliance with such request. For your reference, the specific regulation referred to [Chapter 1, Board of Regents, Sec. 2(a)(6)] states:
“Unprofessional conduct shall also include … upon a patient’s written request, failing to make available to a patient … copies of the record required by paragraph 3 of this sub-division (i.e. office records) and copies of the reports, test records, evaluations of x-rays relating to the patient which are in possession or under the control of the licensee.”
Failure to comply with State law and with the Board of Regents Rules and Regulations may be considered misconduct under New York Education Law Sec. 6509.
Examples of portions of the patient’s medical records that may be requested include, but are not limited to, nurse's notes, physician’s orders, medication/treatment administration records (i.e. MARs/TARs), CNA (certified nursing aide) accountability records, Minimum Data Sets (MDS), care plans, risk assessments, discharge notes, transfer records, patient review instruments (PRI), x-ray interpretation, photographs, lab results, physical therapy records, occupational therapy records, social service records, wound sheets, pressure ulcer tracking forms, etc.
In addition, there are explicit rules which prohibit a New York State nursing home from retaliating and/or discriminating against a resident in response to the filing of an action against the nursing home, specifically by way of a Public Health Law § 2801-d action.
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF NURSING HOME ABUSE AND NEGLECT?
It is essential that family members of loved ones residing in nursing homes pay careful attention to the following signs and symptoms, which may be evidence that your loved one is being neglected or abused in a nursing home. In order to obtain the best care possible, family members should be vigilant and act as advocates for their loved ones. Paying careful attention to potential signs of nursing home neglect is extraordinarily important in maintaining a safe environment for your loved one in a nursing home.
From our perspective based on handling hundreds of nursing home abuse and neglect lawsuits, in the vast majority of cases, a nursing home resident who is adequately cared for should not develop bedsores. Also known as "decubitus ulcers" or "pressure sores, this skin breakdown results from unrelieved pressure, friction, humidity, and poor nutrition, and most often occurs in residents left unattended for extended periods of time without repositioning and relieving pressure. Bedsores can start small and develop into cavernous holes in the body, with muscles, tendons, and bones being exposed. These gaping sores can result in unbearable pain and shock to the body, and can lead to deadly infections.
INJURIES OF "UNKNOWN ORIGIN"
When a nursing home resident is allegedly "found" with an injury and the nursing home has no excuse or explanation for the cause, this is a sign of possibly abuse or neglect. The nursing home is required by law to report any such injuries of unknown origin to the Department of Health as soon as possible. The nursing home also should investigate the cause of these unexplained injuries.
Lack of adequate nutrition and hydration is a sign that a nursing home resident is possibly being neglected or abused. Weight loss can be a direct result of dehydration, serious illness, poor food taste and quality, or a lack of ability to feed one's self.
Nursing homes must develop a written plan of care to lessen the risk of those residents who are at risk for falling. Falls are one of the leading causes of death in the elderly. Unfortunately, many nursing homes fail to have sufficient staff, and in fact have inadequate staff, leading to a lack of supervision and resident falling.
Remember, by law, nursing homes must ensure that residents' rights are protected under state and federal law. If you believe that your loved ones' rights in a nursing home have been violated, it is essential that you contact a skilled nursing home attorney today.
QUESTIONS ABOUT FALLS IN A NURSING HOME?
Nursing homes have a duty to recognize residents that are fall risks in order to identify interventions to prevent the resident from falling, and to minimize complications and injuries from falls that do take place.
Residents should be assessed for their risk of falls upon admission, quarterly, annually and with change of condition such as by using a Fall Assessment Form. The resident's score should be used to determine the resident's risk of falling and to assist with development of care plans.
Some interventions that may be used with residents who are at lower risk of falling include:
orient resident to their surroundings and assigned staff
check lighting is adequate for safe environment
call bell within reach
light cord within reach
personal care items within reach
bed at lowest position and wheels locked
room clear of environmental hazards (cords, furniture, etc.)
ambulate resident as frequently as appropriate
Residents that are at moderate risk for falling may also be given these interventions:
Every two hour comfort and toileting rounds (this may include positioning, offering snacks, ensuring warmth, ambulating, etc.
consult with MD or consultant pharmacist (evaluate side effects of medications
personal bed or chair alarm
therapy evaluation or re-evaluation
High risk may include these interventions:
move resident closer to nursing station as available
all other suggested interventions previously not implemented
bedside mat on floor
more frequent observation· (every 1 hour) for toileting and comfort rounds
ADDITIONAL INTERVENTIONS WHICH SHOULD BE USED TO PREVENT FALLS
Personal clip alarm applied/ repositioned
Bed alarm added / checked / strip changed ·
Seat belt applied (Velcro / Clip)
Medications reviewed with physician
Physician notified of complaint of weakness / dizziness
Padded mat at bedside
Added to toileting schedule
Non-skid socks applied
Slippers / shoes applied
Physical therapy evaluation/ re-evaluation
Occupational therapy evaluation / re-evaluation
Orthostatic blood pressure check
Floor checked for spills
Wires, cords, moved from area
Eye exam ordered
Call bell checked
Resident reminded to call for assistance
Resident reminded to use walker / wheelchair
Walker / Wheelchair repositioned within reach
Commode at bedside
WHAT IS A BED SORE?
A pressure ulcer, also known as a decubitus ulcer or bed sore, is any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissue. There are several other factors other than pressure that may contribute to the development of ulcers, including moisture, friction, shear immobility, sensory loss and certain underlying medical conditions.
The national Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) bed sore classification system defines six different stages:
- Stage I and Deep Tissue Injury (DTI) display intact skin
- Stage II, III, and IV are graded by the depth of the wound
- Unstageable pressure wounds are those in which the base of the wound cannot be seen due to being covered by necrotic tissue
The most common areas of the body where bed sores develop are those areas subjected to pressure, including bony prominences and those areas covered by orthopedic devices or straps. Areas of the body which are subject to often unrelieved pressure include the back of the head, the buttocks, the sacrum, the hips, and the heels.
A Stage I pressure ulcer does not show skin breakage but appears as an area of non-blanchable erythema. A Stage I wound may be difficult to identity in darkly pigmented persons when relying only on skin color changes.
Stage II pressure ulcers are superficial skin breaks into the dermis layer only or clear blisters. if there is necrotic tissue or slough or if the blister is blood-filled, it is not Stage II.
A Stage III pressure ulcer is a full-thickness skin break into subcutaneous tissue but does not permeate into the muscle or bone. A Stage II wound can have undermining or slough.
A Stage IV pressure ulcer penetrates through skin to deeper tissues with bone showing in the base of the ulcer bed. Undermining and tunneling and necrotic tissue may be present in Stage IV ulcers.
Understanding Bed Sores: What They Are and How to Prevent Them
Bed sores, also known as pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers, are lesions caused by unrelieved pressure that damages underlying tissue. These injuries may be caused by factors such as friction, shear, moisture, immobility, sensory loss, and certain medical conditions. The most common areas where bed sores develop are those subjected to pressure, including bony prominences and areas covered by orthopedic devices or straps.
Bed sores are classified into six different stages by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP), including Stage I, Deep Tissue Injury (DTI), Stage II, III, and IV, as well as Unstageable pressure wounds. The severity of bed sores ranges from non-blanchable erythema in Stage I to full-thickness skin breaks that penetrate deep tissues and bone in Stage IV.
Nursing home residents are at particular risk for developing bed sores due to factors such as immobility, age, and underlying medical conditions. Neglect, medication errors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse are some common types of nursing home injuries that may result in bed sores. Nursing homes should provide pressure-relieving interventions, such as regular repositioning, pressure-relieving devices, proper skin care, nutrition and hydration, regular skin assessments, individualized care plans, staff training, pain management, timely medical attention, and adequate staffing, to prevent the occurrence of bed sores.
Bed sores, also known as pressure ulcers, can cause significant pain and discomfort and can even lead to severe health complications such as infections. Fortunately, there are several interventions to prevent bed sores, including:
Regular Repositioning: Repositioning the resident frequently can reduce the pressure on specific areas of the skin. Experts suggest shifting the weight every two hours or less if your loved one is bedridden.
Use of Support Surfaces: Foam cushions, air mattresses, and specialized beds can help distribute weight evenly, reducing pressure and friction that cause bedsores.
Skin Care: Keeping the skin clean, dry, and free of infection is essential to prevent bedsores. Bathing, moisturizing, and daily skin inspections can help identify potential pressure areas.
Proper Nutrition and Hydration: Ensuring that your loved one has a balanced diet and adequate hydration can help promote tissue health and prevent bedsores.
Regular Monitoring: Regular inspection of the skin can help detect bedsores early and facilitate appropriate treatment. It is crucial to work with the nursing home staff to ensure that they take necessary measures to prevent bedsores from occurring and monitor residents accordingly.
By implementing these interventions, family members and nursing home staff can work together to prevent bedsores and promote the overall health and well-being of nursing home residents.
If you suspect that a nursing home resident has been injured due to neglect or abuse, you should report it to the authorities as soon as possible. By being aware of the potential risks and taking steps to prevent bed sores, nursing home residents and their loved ones can ensure their safety and well-being.
TYPES OF NURSING HOME NEGLIGENCE INJURIES
Nursing home injuries can take many forms, and they can be caused by a variety of factors. Some common types of nursing home injuries include:
Falls: Falls are a leading cause of injury among nursing home residents, and they can result in serious injuries such as fractures, head injuries, and bruises.
Slip and fall accidents: These accidents can occur when a nursing home resident slips on a wet or slippery surface, or trips over an obstacle.
Medication errors: Nursing home residents may be at risk of injury if they are given the wrong medication, or if they are given the correct medication in the wrong dosage.
Neglect: Neglect occurs when a nursing home staff member fails to provide the necessary care and assistance to a resident. This can result in injuries such as bedsores, malnutrition, and dehydration.
Physical abuse: Physical abuse refers to the use of force against a nursing home resident, and it can take many forms, including hitting, slapping, pushing, and restraining.
Sexual abuse: Sexual abuse is any form of non-consensual sexual contact, and it can be particularly harmful to nursing home residents due to their physical and cognitive limitations.
Emotional abuse: Emotional abuse occurs when a nursing home staff member or other resident uses words or actions to cause emotional distress or harm to a resident.
It is important for nursing home residents and their loved ones to be aware of the potential risks and to take steps to prevent injuries from occurring. If you suspect that a nursing home resident has been injured due to neglect or abuse, you should report it to the authorities as soon as possible.
Here are some examples of pressure relieving interventions that a nursing home may have failed to implement:
Repositioning: Nursing home staff should reposition residents who are at risk of developing pressure ulcers at least every two hours while they are in bed and every hour while they are sitting in a chair. If the resident is unable to move themselves, staff members should assist with repositioning.
Pressure-relieving devices: Nursing homes should provide pressure-relieving devices, such as specialized mattresses, cushions, and overlays, to residents at risk of developing pressure ulcers.
Skin care: Nursing homes should implement a skin care regimen that includes keeping the skin clean and dry, using moisturizing creams or lotions to prevent dryness, and inspecting the skin daily for signs of redness, irritation, or other damage.
Nutrition and hydration: Nursing homes should ensure that residents receive proper nutrition and hydration to promote healthy skin and prevent the development of pressure ulcers.
Regular skin assessments: Nursing home staff should regularly assess residents' skin to identify early signs of pressure ulcers and take appropriate measures to prevent their development.
Individualized care plans: Nursing homes should develop individualized care plans for each resident that take into account their unique risk factors for pressure ulcer development and outline specific interventions to prevent their occurrence.
Staff training: Nursing homes should provide staff with regular training on the prevention and management of pressure ulcers, as well as best practices for the care of residents at risk of developing these injuries.
Pain management: Nursing homes should manage the pain associated with pressure ulcers to promote healing and improve residents' quality of life.
Timely medical attention: Nursing homes should provide timely medical attention to residents who develop pressure ulcers to prevent the injuries from worsening and reduce the risk of complications.
Adequate staffing: Nursing homes should maintain adequate staffing levels to ensure that residents receive appropriate care and attention to prevent the development of pressure ulcers.
WHAT IS A SUBDURAL HEMATOMA?
A subdural hematoma is a type of brain injury that occurs when blood collects between the brain and the skull. This can happen if a blood vessel in the brain is damaged, or if there is bleeding into the space between the brain and the skull. Subdural hematomas are often the result of a head injury, such as a fall or a car accident, but they can also occur spontaneously in people who have bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning medications.
Symptoms of a subdural hematoma may include headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, difficulty speaking, difficulty seeing, and changes in behavior. In severe cases, a subdural hematoma can lead to unconsciousness or coma. Subdural hematomas can be life-threatening if they are not treated promptly, so it is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have a subdural hematoma. Treatment may involve surgery to remove the blood that has accumulated between the brain and the skull, or other medications to manage the symptoms.
WHAT IS A CRANIOTOMY?
A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to access the brain. Craniotomies are typically performed to treat brain injuries, such as aneurysms, brain tumors, or bleeding in the brain, or to repair skull fractures.
During a craniotomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the scalp and then removes a section of the skull bone (called a bone flap) to expose the brain. Once the brain is accessible, the surgeon can perform the necessary procedures to treat the condition. After the procedure is completed, the bone flap is replaced and secured with metal plates or screws.
Craniotomies are major surgical procedures that are usually performed in a hospital setting under general anesthesia. The recovery process can vary depending on the type of procedure that was performed and the individual's overall health, but it typically involves a stay in the hospital followed by a period of rehabilitation. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions and to take steps to promote healing and prevent complications.
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF HIP FRACTURES?
There are several different types of hip fractures, which are classified based on the location and severity of the fracture. Some common types of hip fractures include:
Intertrochanteric fractures: These fractures occur in the upper part of the thighbone (femur), just below the ball-and-socket joint of the hip. Intertrochanteric fractures are often caused by falls or other types of trauma.
Femoral neck fractures: These fractures occur in the neck of the thighbone (femur), which connects the ball-and-socket joint of the hip to the rest of the bone. Femoral neck fractures are often caused by falls or other types of trauma, and they can be particularly serious because they can disrupt the blood supply to the bone.
Subcapital fractures: These fractures occur in the neck of the thighbone (femur) just above the ball-and-socket joint of the hip. Like femoral neck fractures, subcapital fractures can disrupt the blood supply to the bone and can be serious.
Acetabular fractures: These fractures occur in the acetabulum, which is the socket of the ball-and-socket joint of the hip. Acetabular fractures are often caused by high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or falls from a great height.
Fractures of the greater trochanter: These fractures occur in the bony protuberance on the side of the thighbone (femur) called the greater trochanter. Greater trochanter fractures are often caused by falls or other types of trauma.
Hip fractures can range in severity from simple fractures that can be treated with a cast or other immobilization device, to more complex fractures that require surgical repair. It is important for individuals with hip fractures to follow their doctor's instructions and to take steps to promote healing and prevent complications.
WHAT IS AN INJURY OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN?
An injury of unknown origin (IOU) is a term used to describe an injury that cannot be clearly identified or explained. IOUs can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, assaults, or underlying medical conditions. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the exact cause of an IOU because the individual is unable to provide a clear explanation of what happened, or because there is a lack of physical evidence or witness accounts.
When an individual presents with an IOU, it is important for healthcare providers to conduct a thorough evaluation to try to identify the cause of the injury. This may involve taking a detailed history, performing physical exams and diagnostic tests, and consulting with other specialists as needed. In some cases, the cause of an IOU may never be fully understood, but it is important to try to identify any underlying medical conditions or other factors that may have contributed to the injury in order to provide appropriate treatment and prevent future injuries.
If you believe that a loved one may be the victim of nursing home neglect or abuse, you should take action quickly and contact us online or call Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC at 855 LV FIRM NY or (212) 671-1110 to set up a free consultation with an experienced New York injury lawyer.
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