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  • Writer's pictureLeitner Varughese Warywoda

Mediation 101: A Guide to the Process and Steps Involved

Mediation is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) that involves a neutral third party, called a mediator, who helps two or more parties in conflict to reach a voluntary agreement. Mediation is often used to resolve disputes in various contexts, such as family, workplace, business, community, and legal matters.

According to the American Bar Association, mediation has a high success rate of about 80%, meaning that most cases that go to mediation result in a settlement. Mediation also has many benefits for the parties involved, such as saving time and money, preserving relationships, increasing satisfaction, and enhancing communication and understanding.

In this blog post, we will explain the actual process and steps involved in a mediation session, so that you can have a better idea of what to expect if you ever participate in one. We will also describe some common challenges and pitfalls that may arise during mediation, and how to overcome them and achieve a successful outcome.

The Role and Responsibilities of the Mediator

The mediator is not a judge, arbitrator, or counselor. The mediator does not decide who is right or wrong, impose a solution, or give legal advice. The mediator's role is to facilitate communication, clarify issues, generate options, and help parties reach a mutually acceptable agreement.

The mediator's responsibilities include:

- Establishing ground rules and procedures for the mediation session

- Creating a safe and respectful environment for dialogue

- Listening actively and empathetically to each party's perspective and interests

- Asking open-ended questions and reframing statements to promote understanding

- Identifying common goals and areas of agreement

- Encouraging creative problem-solving and brainstorming

- Evaluating the feasibility and fairness of possible solutions

- Assisting parties in drafting a written agreement if they reach one

The Stages of Mediation

Mediation typically consists of six stages: preparation, opening statement, joint discussion, caucus, negotiation, and closure. However, these stages are not rigid or sequential; they may vary depending on the type and complexity of the dispute, the style and preference of the mediator, and the needs and dynamics of the parties.

Preparation: Before the mediation session begins, the mediator prepares by reviewing the case information, contacting the parties, arranging the logistics, and setting the agenda. The parties also prepare by gathering relevant documents, identifying their interests and goals, and choosing their representatives or supporters if needed.

Opening Statement: The mediation session starts with the mediator's opening statement, which introduces the mediator and the parties, explains the purpose and process of mediation, reviews the ground rules and confidentiality agreement, and obtains consent from the parties to proceed. Then, each party has an opportunity to make an opening statement, which summarizes their position,

concerns, and expectations.

Joint Discussion: After the opening statements, the mediator facilitates a joint discussion between the parties,

where they can exchange information,

clarify issues,

and express their emotions.

The mediator guides the conversation by asking questions,

reframing statements,

and summarizing points.

The goal of this stage is to identify the underlying interests,


and values of each party,

and to find common ground.

Caucus: A caucus is a private meeting between the mediator and one party,

without the presence of the other party.

The mediator may initiate a caucus at any time during the mediation session,

or upon request by one of the parties.

The purpose of a caucus is to allow the party to share confidential information,

vent feelings,

explore options,

or test proposals with the mediator.

The mediator may also use a caucus to help the party overcome an impasse,

address a power imbalance,

or deal with an emotional reaction.

The mediator keeps the information shared in a caucus confidential,

unless authorized by the party to disclose it.

Negotiation: After caucusing with both parties,

the mediator brings them back together for negotiation.

This stage involves generating,


and selecting possible solutions that meet the interests and needs of both parties.

The mediator helps the parties to brainstorm options without judging them,

and to assess them based on objective criteria.

The mediator may also suggest some options or alternatives if needed.

Closure: The mediation session ends with closure,

which may or may not involve reaching an agreement.

If an agreement is reached,

the mediator assists the parties in drafting and signing a written document that reflects their terms and conditions.

The mediator also congratulates them on their achievement,

and reminds them of their obligations and responsibilities under the agreement.

If no agreement is reached,

the mediator acknowledges their efforts,

and discusses their next steps or options,

such as continuing mediation at another time,

or pursuing other forms of ADR or litigation.

Common Challenges and Pitfalls in Mediation

Mediation is not always easy or smooth;

it may encounter some challenges and pitfalls along the way.

Some of these include:

- Power imbalance: This occurs when one party has more resources,


or authority than the other party,

and uses it to dominate or coerce them during mediation.

This may result in an unfair or unenforceable agreement,

or no agreement at all.

- Emotional reactions: This occurs when one or both parties experience strong emotions during mediation,

such as anger,



or guilt.

These emotions may interfere with their ability to communicate effectively,

listen objectively,

or think rationally.

- Impasse: This occurs when one or both parties reach a deadlock or stalemate during mediation,

and are unable or unwilling to move forward or compromise.

This may be caused by unrealistic expectations,

rigid positions,

lack of trust,

or hidden agendas.

- Ethical dilemmas: This occurs when one or both parties face a conflict between their personal values or morals

and their interests or goals during mediation.

This may create discomfort or confusion for them,

and affect their willingness or ability to negotiate.

Tips and Best Practices for Successful Mediation

Despite these challenges and pitfalls, mediation can still be successful if both parties follow some tips and best practices, such as:

- Being respectful: This means treating each other with dignity

and courtesy during mediation;

avoiding personal attacks

or insults;

listening attentively

and acknowledging each other's views;

and expressing disagreement without being disagreeable.

- Being cooperative: This means working together with each other

and with the mediator during mediation;

sharing relevant information

and documents;

being honest

and transparent;

and honoring commitments

and promises.

- Being creative: This means thinking outside the box and exploring different possibilities during mediation;

being open-minded

and flexible;

and focusing on interests

rather than positions.

- Being realistic: This means having reasonable expectations

and goals during mediation;

being aware of one's strengths

and weaknesses;

and accepting one's limitations

and constraints.


Mediation is a process that involves a neutral third party who helps two or more parties in conflict to reach a voluntary agreement. Mediation has many advantages over other forms of dispute resolution; such as saving time and money; preserving relationships; increasing satisfaction; and enhancing communication and understanding.

Mediation typically consists of six stages: preparation; opening statement; joint discussion; caucus; negotiation; and closure. However; these stages are not rigid or sequential; they may vary depending on various factors. Mediation may also face some challenges and pitfalls along the way; such as power imbalance; emotional reactions; impasse; and ethical dilemmas.

To overcome these challenges and achieve a successful outcome; both parties should follow some tips and best practices; such as being respectful; cooperative; creative; and realistic. By doing so; they can resolve their disputes peacefully and efficiently through mediation.

If you are interested in learning more about mediation or finding a mediator for your own conflict; you can visit some of these websites:

- American Bar Association Section of Dispute Resolution:

- Association for Conflict Resolution:

- International Mediation Institute:

About our Firm

We hope this blog post has been informative and helpful for you. If you have been injured in an accident in New York, you may be entitled to compensation for your medical expenses, lost wages, pain and suffering, and more. However, the process of filing a claim and dealing with insurance companies can be complex and challenging. That's why you need an experienced and dedicated personal injury lawyer on your side.

At Leitner Varughese Warywoda, we have the knowledge, skills, and resources to handle all types of construction accident cases. We have recovered over $200 million for our clients in verdicts and settlements. We are not afraid to take on the big corporations and fight for your rights. We will work tirelessly to get you the maximum compensation you deserve.

Our firm can help you with various types of injury accidents, such as:

- Medical Malpractice

- Nursing Home Neglect and Abuse

- Car accidents

- Motorcycle accidents

- Truck accidents

- Pedestrian accidents

- Bicycle accidents

- Slip and fall accidents

- Dog bite accidents

- Workplace accidents

- Product liability accidents

If you have any questions or would like to schedule a free consultation, please do not hesitate to contact us. You can reach us by phone at (212) 671-1110, by email at, or through our website at We are available 24/7 to assist you. Don't wait, call us today and let us help you get justice.


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