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Your Voice Against Neglect.

Nassau County, Long Island's Top-Rated Bedsore and Nursing Home Injury Law Firm

Nassau County's Local Top-rated Bedsore and 
Nursing Home Abuse Attorney

"Fighting for Justice and Accountability: Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC Advocates for Nassau County Nursing Home Residents"

Pursuit of Justice for Neglected
Nursing Home Residents in Nassau County, New York: Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC

Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC, a top-rated New York personal injury law firm, champions the rights of neglected nursing home residents in Nassau County. We relentlessly focus on nursing home abuse and neglect cases, medical malpractice, and complex lawsuits involving serious injuries and wrongful death. Our attorneys fight tirelessly to hold those accountable who mistreat vulnerable individuals.  We were named the #1 Personal Injury Law Firm in New York.

LVW is recognized for our unwavering dedication to Nassau County nursing home abuse victims. Our efforts have been featured on CBS News, Good Morning America, Newsweek, Newsday, and Eyewitness News, highlighting the critical need to address this issue.

Led by attorneys Justin Varughese, Brett Leitner, and Nicholas Warywoda, our firm brings innovation to Nassau County litigation. We specialize in high-profile, complex lawsuits, seeking maximum justice for victims of nursing home neglect and abuse, as well as medical malpractice. Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC secures meaningful compensation and ensures accountability for those impacted by the mistreatment of elderly residents in Nassau County.

We are a compassionate and authoritative law firm deeply understanding the challenges faced by nursing home residents. We provide unwavering support and guidance to neglected individuals and their families throughout Nassau County, striving for a safer and more just environment for all.

For more information about Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC and our relentless fight for justice on behalf of neglected nursing home residents in Nassau County, visit our official website:


Nursing Homes in Nassau County, NY


Belair Care Center Inc
2478 Jerusalem Ave, Bellmore, NY 11710
(516) 826-1160

East Farmingdale

Daleview Care Center
574 Fulton Street, East Farmingdale, NY 11735
(516) 694-9800
East Meadow

Fulton Commons Care Inc

60 Merrick Avenue, East Meadow, NY 11554
(516) 222-9300

Franklin Square

Garden Care Center
135 Franklin Avenue, Franklin Square, NY 11010
(516) 775-2100


Meadowbrook Care Center
320 West Merrick Road, Freeport, NY 11520
(516) 377-8200

South Shore Rehabilitation And Nursing Center
275 W Merrick Road, Freeport, NY 11520
(516) 623-4000


Glen Cove

Glen Cove Center For Nursing
6 Medical Plaza, Glen Cove, NY 11542
(516) 671-9010

Glengariff Health Care Center
141 Dosoris Lane, Glen Cove, NY 11542
(516) 676-1100

Marquis Rehabilitation & Nursing Center
2 Medical Plaza, Glen Cove, NY 11542
(516) 671-0858

Great Neck

Grace Plaza Nursing And Rehabilitation Center
15 St Pauls Place, Great Neck, NY 11021
(516) 466-3001

Highfield Gardens Care Center Of Great Neck
199 Community Drive, Great Neck, NY 11021
(516) 365-9229


Hempstead Park Nursing Home
800 Front Street, Hempstead, NY 11550
(516) 705-9700

Mayfair Care Center Inc
100 Baldwin Road, Hempstead, NY 11550
(516) 538-7171

Nassau Extended Care Facility
One Greenwich Street, Hempstead, NY 11550
(516) 565-4800

Island Park

South Point Plaza Nursing & Rehabilitation Center
One Long Beach oad, Island Park, NY 11558
(516) 432-0300

Long Beach

Beach Terrace Care Center
640 West Broadway, Long Beach, NY 11561
(516) 431-4400

Grandell Rehabilitation And Nursing Center
645 W Broadway, Long Beach, NY 11561
(516) 889-1100

Komanoff Ctr For Geriatric & Rehab Medicine
375 East Bay Drive, Long Beach, NY 11561
(516) 897-1220

Park Avenue Extended Care Facility
425 National Boulevard, Long Beach, NY 11561
(516) 431-2600


Lynbrook Restorative Therapy And Nursing
243 Atlantic Avenue, Lynbrook, NY 11563
(516) 599-2744


North Shore - L I J Stern Family Ctr For Rehab
300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030
(516) 562-8008


Parkview Care And Rehab Center Inc
5353 Merrick Road, Massapequa, NY 11758
(516) 798-1800


Oceanside Care Center Inc
2914 Lincoln Avenue, Oceanside, NY 11572
(516) 536-2300

South Nassau Communities Hospital T C U
1 Healthy Way, Oceanside, NY 11572
(516) 632-3500


Central Island Healthcare
825 Old Country Rd, Plainview, NY 11803
(516) 433-0600

Port Washington

Sands Point Center For H & R
1440 Port Washington Blvd, Port Washington, NY 11050
(516) 719-9400

The Amsterdam At Harborside
300 East Overlook, Port Washington, NY 11050
(516) 472-6610

Rockville Centre

Rockville Skilled Nursing & Rehabilitation Center
50 Maine Avenue, Rockville Centre, NY 11570
(516) 536-8000

The Grand Pavilion For R & N At Rockville Centre
41 Maine Avenue, Rockville Centre, NY 11570
(516) 536-7730

Roslyn Heights

Sunharbor Manor
255 Warner Avenue, Roslyn Heights, NY 11577
(516) 621-5400


A Holly Patterson Extended Care Facility
875 Jerusalem Avenue, Uniondale, NY 11553
(516) 572-1400

Townhouse Center For Rehabilitation & Nrsg
755 Hempstead Turnpike, Uniondale, NY 11553
(516) 565-1900

Valley Stream

Orzac Center For Extended Care & Rehabilitation
900 Franklin Avenue, Valley Stream, NY 11580
(516) 256-6700


Cold Springs Hills Ctr For Nursing And Rehab
378 Syosset Woodbury Road, Woodbury, NY 11797
(516) 921-3900

White Oaks Nursing Home
8565 Jericho Turnpike, Woodbury, NY 11797
(516) 367-3400

Woodbury Center For Health Care
8533 Jericho Tpke, Woodbury, NY 11797
(516) 692-4100


Woodmere Rehabilitation And Health Care Center
121 Franklin Place, Woodmere, NY 11598
(516) 374-9300


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Get the Justice You Deserve with Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC: Your Nassau County Nursing Home Abuse Lawyers

Exceptional Representation for Nassau County Victims

At Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC, we are committed to providing exceptional representation for nursing home victims across Nassau County. Our experienced team of attorneys will fight for the justice you deserve, and make sure that your rights are fully protected.

Experienced Nassau County Nursing Home Abuse Attorneys


Our attorneys have over 15 years of experience fighting for nursing home victims in Nassau County. You’ll have knowledgeable and dedicated advocates working tirelessly to help you get the justice and compensation you deserve. We understand the unique challenges and complexities of these cases within Nassau County's legal system.

Our impressive track record of securing some of the largest jury verdicts and settlements in the state means that you can trust us to fight for the maximum compensation possible in your case. We have extensive experience winning cases like yours throughout New York, and  negotiating aggressively with insurance companies and other parties.

Multilingual Team Committed to Clear Communication

Our team is fluent in a range of languages, including Spanish, Haitian Creole, and Polish, so you can communicate effectively and clearly with us.  We want to help break down any language barriers and work with Nassau County's diverse population to build the strongest possible cases.

No Upfront Fees: We Only Get Paid if You Win

We understand that medical bills and other expenses related to nursing home abuse can be overwhelming. That’s why we never charge upfront fees and work on a contingency basis. You'll have peace of mind knowing you won’t pay anything if we don’t win your case.

Highly Rated by Satisfied Clients

Our clients consistently give us top ratings. This demonstrates our commitment to providing the highest quality legal representation in Nassau County. You can trust that we’ll work tirelessly to get you the best possible outcome and guide you through the process with compassion and empathy.

Nassau County Focus: We Know the Area

We regularly represent clients throughout Nassau County in locations like Hempstead, Mineola, and Glen Cove. Our attorneys know the towns where our clients live, work, and receive care. This local knowledge helps us build more effective cases  and navigate the legal process with confidence.

Proven Success in Complex Lawsuits

We handle a wide range of high-profile, complex lawsuits involving serious injuries and wrongful death. Our team has the skill and expertise to handle any case in Nassau County, no matter how difficult. We are dedicated to protecting your rights and ensuring that you receive the justice you deserve.

Compassionate, Dedicated Advocacy

At Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC, we understand the challenges of nursing home injuries and wrongful death. We are here to provide compassionate and dedicated legal representation tailored to Nassau County. We will fight for you and be with you every step of the way.

Nassau County Areas we Serve



North Hempstead
Oyster Bay



Atlantic Beach
Baxter Estates
Centre Island
Cove Neck
East Hills
East Rockaway
East Williston
Floral Park
Flower Hill
Garden City
Glen Cove
Great Neck
Great Neck Estates
Great Neck Plaza
Hewlett Bay Park
Hewlett Harbor
Hewlett Neck
Island Park
Kings Point
Lake Success
Laurel Hollow
Manhasset Hills
Massapequa Park
Mill Neck
Munsey Park
New Hyde Park
North Hills
Old Brookville
Old Westbury
Oyster Bay Cove
Plandome Heights
Plandome Manor
Port Washington North
Rockville Centre
Roslyn Estates
Roslyn Harbor
Saddle Rock
Sands Point
Sea Cliff
South Floral Park
Stewart Manor
Upper Brookville
Valley Stream
Williston Park



New York

$775,000.00 Settlement

  • Fall in nursing home resulting in head trauma and death (Nassau County)​​

$525,000.00 Settlement

  • Nursing Home resident falls and fractures hip (Nassau County)

$350,000.00 Settlement

  • Rear end collision with exacerbation of prior back injury (Nassau County)


$325,000.00 Settlement

  • 73-year-old woman develops foot ulcers (Nassau County)


$275,000.00 Settlement

  • 74-year-old woman fell and fractured femur - no surgery (Nassau County)

$240,000.00 Settlement

  • Motor vehicle collision with shoulder surgery (Nassau County)

$230,000.00 Settlement

  • 79-year-old woman developed a bedsore (Nassau County)

$225,000.00 Settlement

  • Motor vehicle collision with exacerbation of prior back injury (Nassau County)


$225,000.00 Settlement

  • 91-year-old woman sustained a bedsore (Nassau County)


$220,000.00 Settlement

  • Motor vehicle collision with exacerbation of prior spinal injury (Nassau County)



According to the New York State Department of Health, nursing home residents have the right to:

  • dignity, respect and a comfortable living environment

  • quality of care and treatment without discrimination

  • freedom of choice to make your own, independent decisions

  • be informed in writing about services and fees before you enter the nursing home

  • the safeguard of your property and money

  • appeal a transfer or discharge with the New York State Department of Health

  • privacy in communications and the treatment and care of personal needs/belongings

  • choose your own schedule, activities and other preferences that are important to you

  • receive visitors of your choosing at the time of your choosing

  • an easy-to-use and responsive complaint procedure

  • be free from abuse including verbal, sexual, mental and physical abuse

  • be free from restraints

  • exercise all of your rights without fear of reprisal

  • participate in the established resident council at the facility

  • access and inspect records pertaining to your care



Rules and regulations exist governing a New York State nursing home's duties and obligations with regard to producing copies of a nursing home resident's medical and nursing records.

Section 18(2) of the New York Public Health Law (PHL) states that, upon written request, a health care provider shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for a patient to inspect the patient’s information concerning or relating to the examination or treatment of the patient.


Section 18(1)(b) defines “Health care provider” or “provider” as a “health care facility” or a “health care practitioner” as defined by this subdivision.


Section 18(1) (c) defines “Health care facility” or “facility” as a “hospital as defined in article twenty-eight of this chapter”


Section 2801 defines “Hospital” as “a facility or institution engaged principally in providing services by or under the supervision of a physician or, in the case of a dental clinic or dental dispensary, of a dentist, or, in the case of a midwifery birth center, of a midwife, for the prevention, diagnosis or treatment of human disease, pain, injury, deformity or physical condition, including, but not limited to, a general hospital, public health center, diagnostic center, treatment center, dental clinic, dental dispensary, rehabilitation center other than a facility used solely for vocational rehabilitation, nursing home … .”


In addition to Section 18(2) of the New York Public Health Law (PHL), 10 NYCRR 415.3(c)(iv) mandates that the facility provide the requesting party with the right “to inspect all records including clinical records, pertaining to himself or herself within 24 hours after oral or written request to the facility” and, in addition, to purchase copies with 48 hours of the request. 


Moreover, 42 CFR 483.10(g) additionally requires that the facility must provide the records within 24 hours of the request.


Finally, the Rules and Regulations of the Board of Regents concerning professional conduct clearly require your compliance with such request.  For your reference, the specific regulation referred to [Chapter 1, Board of Regents, Sec. 2(a)(6)] states:


 “Unprofessional conduct shall also include … upon a patient’s written request, failing to make available to a patient … copies of the record required by paragraph 3 of this sub-division (i.e. office records) and copies of the reports, test records, evaluations of x-rays relating to the patient which are in possession or under the control of the licensee.”

Failure to comply with State law and with the Board of Regents Rules and Regulations may be considered misconduct under New York Education Law Sec. 6509.  


Examples of portions of the patient’s medical records that may be requested include, but are not limited to, nurse's notes, physician’s orders, medication/treatment administration records (i.e. MARs/TARs), CNA (certified nursing aide) accountability records, Minimum Data Sets (MDS), care plans, risk assessments, discharge notes, transfer records, patient review instruments (PRI), x-ray interpretation, photographs, lab results, physical therapy records, occupational therapy records, social service records, wound sheets, pressure ulcer tracking forms, etc.  


In addition, there are explicit rules which prohibit a New York State nursing home from retaliating and/or discriminating against a resident in response to the filing of an action against the nursing home, specifically by way of a Public Health Law § 2801-d action.




It is essential that family members of loved ones residing in nursing homes pay careful attention to the following signs and symptoms, which may be evidence that your loved one is being neglected or abused in a nursing home.  In order to obtain the best care possible, family members should be vigilant and act as advocates for their loved ones.  Paying careful attention to potential signs of nursing home neglect is extraordinarily important in maintaining a safe environment for your loved one in a nursing home.




From our perspective based on handling hundreds of nursing home abuse and neglect lawsuits, in the vast majority of cases, a nursing home resident who is adequately cared for should not develop bedsores.  Also known as "decubitus ulcers" or "pressure sores, this skin breakdown results from unrelieved pressure, friction, humidity, and poor nutrition, and most often occurs in residents left unattended for extended periods of time without repositioning and relieving pressure.  Bedsores can start small and develop into cavernous holes in the body, with muscles, tendons, and bones being exposed.  These gaping sores can result in unbearable pain and shock to the body, and can lead to deadly infections.




When a nursing home resident is allegedly "found" with an injury and the nursing home has no excuse or explanation for the cause, this is a sign of possibly abuse or neglect.  The nursing home is required by law to report any such injuries of unknown origin to the Department of Health as soon as possible.  The nursing home also should investigate the cause of these unexplained injuries.




Lack of adequate nutrition and hydration is a sign that a nursing home resident is possibly being neglected or abused.  Weight loss can be a direct result of dehydration, serious illness, poor food taste and quality, or a lack of ability to feed one's self.




Nursing homes must develop a written plan of care to lessen the risk of those residents who are at risk for falling.  Falls are one of the leading causes of death in the elderly.  Unfortunately, many nursing homes fail to have sufficient staff, and in fact have inadequate staff, leading to a lack of supervision and resident falling.


Remember, by law, nursing homes must ensure that residents' rights are protected under state and federal law.  If you believe that your loved ones' rights in a nursing home have been violated, it is essential that you contact a skilled nursing home attorney today.


Nursing homes have a duty to recognize residents that are fall risks in order to identify interventions to prevent the resident from falling, and to minimize complications and injuries from falls that do take place.


Residents should be assessed for their risk of falls upon admission, quarterly, annually and with change of condition such as by using a Fall Assessment Form.  The resident's score should be used to determine the resident's risk of falling and to assist with development of care plans.


Some interventions that may be used with residents who are at lower risk of falling include:


  • orient resident  to their surroundings and assigned staff

  • check lighting is adequate for safe environment

  • non-slip footwear

  • call bell within reach

  • light cord within reach

  • personal  care items within reach

  • bed at lowest position and wheels locked

  • room clear of environmental  hazards (cords,  furniture, etc.)

  • ambulate resident as frequently as appropriate


Residents that are at moderate risk for falling may also be given these interventions:


  • Every two hour comfort and toileting rounds (this may include positioning, offering snacks, ensuring warmth, ambulating, etc.

  • consult with MD or consultant pharmacist (evaluate side effects of medications

  • personal bed or chair alarm

  • seat belt

  • therapy evaluation  or re-evaluation

  • other consults


High risk may include these interventions:


  • move resident closer to nursing station as available

  • all other suggested interventions previously not implemented

  • bedside mat on floor

  • more frequent observation· (every 1 hour) for toileting and comfort rounds




  • Personal  clip alarm applied/ repositioned    

  • Bed alarm added / checked / strip changed ·    

  • Seat belt applied (Velcro / Clip)    

  • Medications  reviewed with physician    

  • Physician notified of complaint of weakness / dizziness    

  • Low bed    

  • Padded mat at bedside    

  • Added to toileting schedule    

  • Non-skid socks applied    

  • Slippers / shoes applied    

  • Physical  therapy evaluation/ re-evaluation    

  • Occupational therapy evaluation / re-evaluation    

  • Orthostatic blood pressure check    

  • Floor checked for spills    

  • Wires, cords, moved from area    

  • Eye exam ordered    

  • Call bell checked    

  • Resident reminded to call for assistance    

  • Resident reminded to use walker / wheelchair    

  • Walker / Wheelchair repositioned within reach    

  • Commode  at bedside    



Nursing Home Negligence and Abuse in Bronx County, New York

The decision to place a loved one in a nursing home is never easy. It is often a last resort for families who have exhausted all other care options for their aging relatives. However, when families entrust the well-being of their loved ones to nursing homes in Bronx County, New York, they expect quality care and safety.

Nursing homes in Bronx County have a significant responsibility to provide adequate care, including food, hydration, medication, and protection against abuse and neglect. Unfortunately, many nursing homes fail to meet these basic standards, leading to severe injuries such as falls, pressure ulcers, malnutrition, and emotional abuse.

Tragically, negligence and abuse in nursing homes occur far too often, compromising the health, well-being, and dignity of the most vulnerable members of our society. Despite state and federal regulations, violations still happen, putting nursing home residents in harm's way.

If you suspect that your loved one has suffered from nursing home negligence or abuse in Bronx County, New York, it is crucial to take action. Seek legal assistance to hold these facilities accountable for their actions, protecting the rights and well-being of your loved ones.

Nursing homes have a significant responsibility when they accept residents and receive payment for their care. They must provide quality care, including proper food, hydration, medication, safety, and protection against abuse and neglect. Unfortunately, many nursing homes fail to meet these standards, leading to common incidents of neglect, abuse, and severe injuries such as falls resulting in fractures, head injuries, and internal bleeding. Inadequate staff training can also lead to choking incidents and dislodged trachs, causing devastating outcomes. Emotional abuse can result in significant emotional and psychological harm. 

The decision to entrust a loved one to a nursing home is one of the most difficult choices a family can face. When entering into this sacred trust with a nursing home, families expect their loved ones to receive proper care with dignity and respect. Unfortunately, negligence and abuse in nursing homes are far too common. Despite state and federal regulations, like the New York State Public Health Law, that exist to protect nursing home residents, violations occur regularly, compromising the health, well-being, and dignity of some of our society's most vulnerable members. 

While these regulations aim to protect nursing home residents, the harsh reality is that gross violations frequently endanger them. Nursing homes have a duty of care to provide high-quality services, including nutrition, hydration, medication management, safety, and dignity. Failure to meet this duty can result in various injuries, including falls, pressure ulcers, malnutrition, dehydration, and emotional abuse. Despite the existing regulations, cases of negligence and abuse persist, necessitating the need for vigilant oversight and legal action.


Don't ignore the warning signs of nursing home negligence - they can have devastating effects on the physical and mental well-being of residents. It's crucial to understand what to look out for, so you can take action if you suspect neglect or abuse.

Bed Sores or Pressure Sores are a tell-tale sign of nursing home neglect. These painful wounds develop when residents are left in the same position for too long, leading to infections that can be life-threatening.

Breathing tube mishaps can have serious consequences, including respiratory failure and even death. This risk is especially high for residents who require assisted breathing. Trained medical staff must regularly check these tubes to prevent clogging or misplacement. Failure to do so can result in choking, pneumonia, or worse. If your loved one has suffered due to negligence in managing breathing tubes, seek legal help to hold those responsible accountable.

Falls are a significant risk for nursing home residents due to their age and health conditions. It is the duty of nursing homes and staff to provide adequate supervision and prevent fall accidents. Unsupervised falls can lead to severe injuries, such as fractures, requiring long-term hospitalization and rehabilitation. They can also cause subdural hematomas, a type of brain injury that may not show symptoms for days or weeks. Early detection is crucial to avoid long-term consequences and save lives.

Infections or sepsis can indicate neglect, suggesting a lack of hygiene and cleanliness standards.

Injuries of unknown origin raise suspicions of neglect or abuse. Nursing homes are responsible for thoroughly investigating and promptly reporting such incidents. Any injuries without a clear explanation, such as unexplained bruises or wounds, should be taken seriously to ensure the safety and well-being of residents.

Malnutrition or dehydration can occur when residents aren't properly nourished or hydrated. Medication errors, as well as incidents of choking and blocked breathing tubes, pose significant health risks and can stem from negligence or inadequate staff training.

Sexual abuse is a deeply distressing and tragic form of nursing home neglect and abuse, especially when it involves incapacitated residents.

Don't let nursing home negligence go unnoticed. If you suspect your loved one has suffered from neglect or abuse, seek legal assistance from experienced nursing home neglect and abuse attorneys. We will help you understand your rights, options, and work towards ensuring the safety and well-being of your loved ones.

How to Guarantee High-Quality Care for Your Loved Ones in Nursing Homes

As family members, we have a vital role in ensuring that our loved ones receive the best possible care in nursing homes. Here are some practical steps you can take:

Regular Visits: By visiting your loved one regularly, you can closely monitor their well-being and ensure that they are receiving the quality care they deserve.

Communication with Staff: Building a strong relationship with staff members is essential. Take the time to communicate with them about your loved one's daily routine, medication, and nutrition. This will give you valuable insights into their care.

Watch for Signs of Neglect or Abuse: Keep a close eye on your loved one for any signs of neglect or abuse. Be vigilant for physical injuries, sudden behavior changes, or unexplained weight loss.

Research the Facility: Take the time to research the reputation, history, and qualifications of the nursing home facility. Look for online reviews and talk to other residents and their families to gather important information.

Advocacy for Your Loved One: If you feel that your loved one's needs are not being met, don't hesitate to speak up. Be proactive and voice your concerns to the nursing home staff. If necessary, seek advice from a skilled attorney specializing in nursing home neglect and abuse.

By staying vigilant and proactive, we can ensure that our loved ones receive the highest standard of care. These steps will not only help identify and resolve any potential issues but also prevent them from becoming more serious problems.

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A pressure ulcer, also known as a decubitus ulcer or bed sore, is any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissue.  There are several other factors other than pressure that may contribute to the development of ulcers, including moisture, friction, shear immobility, sensory loss and certain underlying medical conditions.


The national Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) bed sore classification system defines six different stages:

 - Stage I and Deep Tissue Injury (DTI) display intact skin

 - Stage II, III, and IV are graded by the depth of the wound

 - Unstageable pressure wounds are those in which the base of the wound cannot be seen due to being covered by necrotic tissue


The most common areas of the body where bed sores develop are those areas subjected to pressure, including bony prominences and those areas covered by orthopedic devices or straps.  Areas of the body which are subject to often unrelieved pressure include the back of the head, the buttocks, the sacrum, the hips, and the heels.


A Stage I pressure ulcer does not show skin breakage but appears as an area of non-blanchable erythema.  A Stage I wound may be difficult to identity in darkly pigmented persons when relying only on skin color changes.


Stage II pressure ulcers are superficial skin breaks into the dermis layer only or clear blisters.  if there is necrotic tissue or slough or if the blister is blood-filled, it is not Stage II.


A Stage III pressure ulcer is a full-thickness skin break into subcutaneous tissue but does not permeate into the muscle or bone.  A Stage II wound can have undermining or slough.


A Stage IV pressure ulcer penetrates through skin to deeper tissues with bone showing in the base of the ulcer bed.  Undermining and tunneling and necrotic tissue may be present in Stage IV ulcers.

Understanding Bed Sores: What They Are and How to Prevent Them


Bed sores, also known as pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers, are lesions caused by unrelieved pressure that damages underlying tissue. These injuries may be caused by factors such as friction, shear, moisture, immobility, sensory loss, and certain medical conditions. The most common areas where bed sores develop are those subjected to pressure, including bony prominences and areas covered by orthopedic devices or straps.

Bed sores are classified into six different stages by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP), including Stage I, Deep Tissue Injury (DTI), Stage II, III, and IV, as well as Unstageable pressure wounds. The severity of bed sores ranges from non-blanchable erythema in Stage I to full-thickness skin breaks that penetrate deep tissues and bone in Stage IV.

Nursing home residents are at particular risk for developing bed sores due to factors such as immobility, age, and underlying medical conditions. Neglect, medication errors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse are some common types of nursing home injuries that may result in bed sores. Nursing homes should provide pressure-relieving interventions, such as regular repositioning, pressure-relieving devices, proper skin care, nutrition and hydration, regular skin assessments, individualized care plans, staff training, pain management, timely medical attention, and adequate staffing, to prevent the occurrence of bed sores.

Bed sores, also known as pressure ulcers, can cause significant pain and discomfort and can even lead to severe health complications such as infections. Fortunately, there are several interventions to prevent bed sores, including:

Regular Repositioning: Repositioning the resident frequently can reduce the pressure on specific areas of the skin. Experts suggest shifting the weight every two hours or less if your loved one is bedridden.

Use of Support Surfaces: Foam cushions, air mattresses, and specialized beds can help distribute weight evenly, reducing pressure and friction that cause bedsores.

Skin Care: Keeping the skin clean, dry, and free of infection is essential to prevent bedsores. Bathing, moisturizing, and daily skin inspections can help identify potential pressure areas.

Proper Nutrition and Hydration: Ensuring that your loved one has a balanced diet and adequate hydration can help promote tissue health and prevent bedsores.

Regular Monitoring: Regular inspection of the skin can help detect bedsores early and facilitate appropriate treatment. It is crucial to work with the nursing home staff to ensure that they take necessary measures to prevent bedsores from occurring and monitor residents accordingly.

By implementing these interventions, family members and nursing home staff can work together to prevent bedsores and promote the overall health and well-being of nursing home residents.


If you suspect that a nursing home resident has been injured due to neglect or abuse, you should report it to the authorities as soon as possible. By being aware of the potential risks and taking steps to prevent bed sores, nursing home residents and their loved ones can ensure their safety and well-being.


Nursing home injuries can take many forms, and they can be caused by a variety of factors. Some common types of nursing home injuries include:

  1. Falls: Falls are a leading cause of injury among nursing home residents, and they can result in serious injuries such as fractures, head injuries, and bruises.

  2. Slip and fall accidents: These accidents can occur when a nursing home resident slips on a wet or slippery surface, or trips over an obstacle.

  3. Medication errors: Nursing home residents may be at risk of injury if they are given the wrong medication, or if they are given the correct medication in the wrong dosage.

  4. Neglect: Neglect occurs when a nursing home staff member fails to provide the necessary care and assistance to a resident. This can result in injuries such as bedsores, malnutrition, and dehydration.

  5. Physical abuse: Physical abuse refers to the use of force against a nursing home resident, and it can take many forms, including hitting, slapping, pushing, and restraining.

  6. Sexual abuse: Sexual abuse is any form of non-consensual sexual contact, and it can be particularly harmful to nursing home residents due to their physical and cognitive limitations.

  7. Emotional abuse: Emotional abuse occurs when a nursing home staff member or other resident uses words or actions to cause emotional distress or harm to a resident.


It is important for nursing home residents and their loved ones to be aware of the potential risks and to take steps to prevent injuries from occurring. If you suspect that a nursing home resident has been injured due to neglect or abuse, you should report it to the authorities as soon as possible.

Here are some examples of pressure relieving interventions that a nursing home may have failed to implement:

  1. Repositioning: Nursing home staff should reposition residents who are at risk of developing pressure ulcers at least every two hours while they are in bed and every hour while they are sitting in a chair. If the resident is unable to move themselves, staff members should assist with repositioning.

  2. Pressure-relieving devices: Nursing homes should provide pressure-relieving devices, such as specialized mattresses, cushions, and overlays, to residents at risk of developing pressure ulcers.

  3. Skin care: Nursing homes should implement a skin care regimen that includes keeping the skin clean and dry, using moisturizing creams or lotions to prevent dryness, and inspecting the skin daily for signs of redness, irritation, or other damage.

  4. Nutrition and hydration: Nursing homes should ensure that residents receive proper nutrition and hydration to promote healthy skin and prevent the development of pressure ulcers.

  5. Regular skin assessments: Nursing home staff should regularly assess residents' skin to identify early signs of pressure ulcers and take appropriate measures to prevent their development.

  6. Individualized care plans: Nursing homes should develop individualized care plans for each resident that take into account their unique risk factors for pressure ulcer development and outline specific interventions to prevent their occurrence.

  7. Staff training: Nursing homes should provide staff with regular training on the prevention and management of pressure ulcers, as well as best practices for the care of residents at risk of developing these injuries.

  8. Pain management: Nursing homes should manage the pain associated with pressure ulcers to promote healing and improve residents' quality of life.

  9. Timely medical attention: Nursing homes should provide timely medical attention to residents who develop pressure ulcers to prevent the injuries from worsening and reduce the risk of complications.

  10. Adequate staffing: Nursing homes should maintain adequate staffing levels to ensure that residents receive appropriate care and attention to prevent the development of pressure ulcers.


A subdural hematoma is a type of brain injury that occurs when blood collects between the brain and the skull. This can happen if a blood vessel in the brain is damaged, or if there is bleeding into the space between the brain and the skull. Subdural hematomas are often the result of a head injury, such as a fall or a car accident, but they can also occur spontaneously in people who have bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning medications.


Symptoms of a subdural hematoma may include headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, difficulty speaking, difficulty seeing, and changes in behavior. In severe cases, a subdural hematoma can lead to unconsciousness or coma. Subdural hematomas can be life-threatening if they are not treated promptly, so it is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have a subdural hematoma. Treatment may involve surgery to remove the blood that has accumulated between the brain and the skull, or other medications to manage the symptoms.


A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to access the brain. Craniotomies are typically performed to treat brain injuries, such as aneurysms, brain tumors, or bleeding in the brain, or to repair skull fractures.

During a craniotomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the scalp and then removes a section of the skull bone (called a bone flap) to expose the brain. Once the brain is accessible, the surgeon can perform the necessary procedures to treat the condition. After the procedure is completed, the bone flap is replaced and secured with metal plates or screws.

Craniotomies are major surgical procedures that are usually performed in a hospital setting under general anesthesia. The recovery process can vary depending on the type of procedure that was performed and the individual's overall health, but it typically involves a stay in the hospital followed by a period of rehabilitation. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions and to take steps to promote healing and prevent complications.



There are several different types of hip fractures, which are classified based on the location and severity of the fracture. Some common types of hip fractures include:

  • Intertrochanteric fractures: These fractures occur in the upper part of the thighbone (femur), just below the ball-and-socket joint of the hip. Intertrochanteric fractures are often caused by falls or other types of trauma.

  • Femoral neck fractures: These fractures occur in the neck of the thighbone (femur), which connects the ball-and-socket joint of the hip to the rest of the bone. Femoral neck fractures are often caused by falls or other types of trauma, and they can be particularly serious because they can disrupt the blood supply to the bone.

  • Subcapital fractures: These fractures occur in the neck of the thighbone (femur) just above the ball-and-socket joint of the hip. Like femoral neck fractures, subcapital fractures can disrupt the blood supply to the bone and can be serious.

  • Acetabular fractures: These fractures occur in the acetabulum, which is the socket of the ball-and-socket joint of the hip. Acetabular fractures are often caused by high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or falls from a great height.

  • Fractures of the greater trochanter: These fractures occur in the bony protuberance on the side of the thighbone (femur) called the greater trochanter. Greater trochanter fractures are often caused by falls or other types of trauma.


Hip fractures can range in severity from simple fractures that can be treated with a cast or other immobilization device, to more complex fractures that require surgical repair. It is important for individuals with hip fractures to follow their doctor's instructions and to take steps to promote healing and prevent complications.


An injury of unknown origin (IOU) is a term used to describe an injury that cannot be clearly identified or explained. IOUs can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, assaults, or underlying medical conditions. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the exact cause of an IOU because the individual is unable to provide a clear explanation of what happened, or because there is a lack of physical evidence or witness accounts.


When an individual presents with an IOU, it is important for healthcare providers to conduct a thorough evaluation to try to identify the cause of the injury. This may involve taking a detailed history, performing physical exams and diagnostic tests, and consulting with other specialists as needed. In some cases, the cause of an IOU may never be fully understood, but it is important to try to identify any underlying medical conditions or other factors that may have contributed to the injury in order to provide appropriate treatment and prevent future injuries.


If you believe that a loved one may be the victim of nursing home neglect or abuse, you should take action quickly and contact us online or call Leitner Varughese Warywoda PLLC at 855 LV FIRM NY or (212) 671-1110 to set up a free consultation with an experienced New York injury lawyer.



TOLL FREE: 855 LV LAW NY (855-585-2969)

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